Cognitive information processing is used when the learner plays an active role in seeking ways to understand. The process information that he or she recieves and relate it to what is already known and stored within their memory. It revolves around many factors, including problem-solving skills, memory retention, thinking skills and the perception of learned materials that is called ‘cognitive learning’. In the learning process, cognitive approach pays more attention to what goes on inside the learner’s head and focuses on mental process rather than observal behavior. Change in behavior are observed, and used as indicators to what happening inside the learner’s mind.

During the 20th century, the most influences researcher in the area of developmental psychology was Jean Piaget (1896-1980). Piaget developed his method of understanding children by observed and analyzed behavior. Piaget (1936) described his work as genetic epistemology (i.e. the origins of thinking). Genetics is the scientific study of where things come from (their origins). Epistemology is concerned with the basic categories of thinking, that is to say, the framework or structural properties of intelligence.According to Piaget, children are born with a very basic mental structure (genetically inherited and evolved). He introduced 4 stages of development which is sensorimotor (birth-2 years), pre-operational (2-7 years), concreate operational (7-12 years) and formal operational (12 years).

Meanwhile, Lev Vygotsky’s (1896-1934) was focused on connection between people ans the social cultural in which they act and interact in shared experience. Vygotsky’s theory is sometimes referred to as having a sociocultural perspective, which means the theory emphasizes the importance of society and culture for promoting cognitive development.Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory defined 3 major themes which issocial interaction, the more knowledgeable other (MKO), and the zone of proximal development (ZPD). From my point of view, we can see a different approach to children’s learning, cognitive development and intelligence that was used by both psychology. According to Piaget’s theory children should not be taught certain concepts until they have reached the appropriate stage of cognitive development. Based on Piaget theory, he describe every children was born with a basic mental structure. For example from 4 stages of development (0-2 years child) have interaction with environment which is sensori-motor. The children learn stages by stages with their development of ages.

In my opinion,  education learning expecially teachers have the important role of investing in the development of the next generation who will be impacting the world in the future. It’s a significant responsibility that involves many different skills to be successful. The role of the teacher is to facilitate learning, rather than direct tuition. Therefore, teachers should encourage certain aspect in the classroom which is focus on the process of learning, rather than the end product of it, using collaborative, as well as individual activities (so children can learn from each other), devising situations that present useful problems, and create disequilibrium in the child, also evaluate the level of the child’s development, so suitable tasks can be set.

Besides that, the implication in education from the Vygotsky theory was different which is can help educators to understand how children’s brain develop and develop strategies for aiding in a child cognitive development. A  child could experience was in the social interactions they had with a skilled tutor that is often an adult, such as a parent or teacher. Furthermore, an educator can put into place from Vygotsky’s theory is his concepts of the zone of proximal development and scaffolding. This allows teachers to realize what a child can do if they only had assistance. In my opinion, scaffolding very helpful and provides an effective way to reach potential levels of development.