The Taba Model was developed by Hilda Taba (1902 – 1967), an architect, a curriculum theorist, a curriculum reformer, and a teacher educator. She was born in the small village of Kooraste, Estonia. Taba believed that there has to be a definite order in creating a curriculum.

Hilda Taba is the developer of the Taba Model of learning. This model is used to enhance the thinking skills of students. Hilda Taba believed that there must be a process for evalutating student achievement of content after the content standards have been established and implemented. The main concept of this approach to curriculum development is that teachers must be involved in the development of the curriculum.

hilda taba



Strengths of using the Taba Model in the classroom:

  • Gifted students begin thinking of a concept, then dive deeper into that concept
  • Focuses on open-ended questions rather than right/wrong questions
  • The open-endedness requires more abstract thinking, a benefit to our gifted students
  • The questions and answers lend themselves to rich classroom discussion
  • Easy to assess student learning


Limitations of using the Taba Model in the classroom:

  • Can be difficult for non-gifted students to grasp 
  • Difficult for heterogeneous classrooms
  • Works well for fiction and non-fiction, may be difficult to easily use in all subjects



The book entitled “Art and Cognition”-Integrating The Visual Arts In The Curriculum (2002) was publish by Arthur D.Efland. There are describe the key observation which is integrated with the cognition. As stated by our presenter, (Nazia) tells there is 4  major components which is :

  • Cognitive Flexibility / General Cognitive Development
  • Integration of Knowledge Through the Arts
  • The Imaginative in Cognition
  • The Aesthetic Experience

Nazia-presentation (efland)





Strategies model of TABA








The componential theory of creativity is a comprehensive model of the social and
psychological components necessary for an individual to produce creative work. The
theory is grounded in a definition of creativity as the production of ideas or outcomes that are both novel and appropriate to some goal. These theory was articulated by Teresa Amabile in 1983.

There are four major component which is :

  • Domain-relevant Skills
  • Creativity-relevant Processes
  • Task Motivation
  • The Social Environment



Dick and Carey instructional design model (also known as the Systems Approach Model) is one of the former. In these theory they are 9 step which is :




The Isman model’s goal is very similar to any instructional design model’s goal: “to point up how to plan, develop, implement, evaluate, and organize full learning activities effectively so that it will ensure competent performance by students.” (Isman 2011).

These theory  have 5 step which is:

  • input
  • process
  • output
  • feedback
  • learning


ISMAN advantages








What is Instructional Design Model..?

  • procedural and conceptual model

  • based on theory (learning theory, systems theory) or practise (company, military, software development)

  • give structure and meaning to a problems


Examples of Instructional Design Model :

  • ADDIE Model

  • ASSURE Model

  • Dick & Carey Model

  • Hannafin & Peck Model

  • Waterfall Model

  • Rapid Prototyping Model

  • Hipermedia Design Model

  • Multimedia Design Model


There are 5 essential phases in Instructional Design (ID) Model :






first rapid prototyping technique become accessible in the later 80s and used for production of prototype and model parts. The rapid prototyping can be trace in the late 60s when Herbert Voelcker (engineering professor) question himself about the possibilities of doing interesting with the computer controlled and automatic machine tools.



RAPID – happening in a short amount of time / happening quickly / moving quickly

PROTOTYPING – testing ideas / mock – up






  • involved quick building up or working model for the purpose of testing the various design features, ideas, concept, functionality, output and performance.

  • Is an instructional design approach that combines the design, developmental, and evaluation phases.

  • It is a non-linear approach that produces a sample working model that is a scaled-down representative version of the whole course.

  • In a design process, early development of a small-scale prototype used to test out certain key features of the design.

  • Prototyping as a Method for Instructional Design “Rapid prototyping in instructional systems design is the building of a model of the system to design and develop the system itself.” (Tripp & Bichelmeyer, 1990)

Tripp and Bichelmeyer’s model is as an early RP instructional design often cited in the RP literature. This model outlines the RP design phases as: assess needs and analyze content; set objectives; construct prototype; utilize prototype; install and maintain system.



Tripp and Bichelmeyer rapid prototyping ISD model

Rapid prototyping includes the “parallel processes of design and research, or construction and utilization” (Tripp & Bichelmeyer, 1990, p. 37).


Steps Involved in Rapid Prototyping :

Step 1:

  • Statement of Needs and Objectives
  • The purpose of a short statement is to: communicate / offer a plan of action.

Step 2:

  • Research & Development Construct prototypes under these conditions: offer little or no commitment to the design.
  • focus on solving immediate problems
  • create alternative designs that may even be opppsite.

Step 2 (Cont.)

  • Utilize Prototype -designer observes.
  • learner asks questions to discover strengths and weaknesses.
  • problem discovery, not problem solving.
  • the creation process most likely begins again.

Step 3:

  • The Final Project “an appropriate artifact not a generalization”
  • the instructional design process has been a unique experience, not one that can be replicated in the exact manner again.


RAPID PROTOTYPING (Ex. in jewellery making)



Rapid prototyping process chain


Learning environment assumptions:

  • MODULARITY : allows a segments of the instruction to be changed, added, and/or removed without severely affecting the whole (Ex: looseleaf notebooks / overhead transparency presentations)
  • PLASTICITY : the ability to revise one aspect of a unit of instruction without creating time and cost penalties (Ex:  computer programs)



  • The Prototype gives the user a fair idea about the final look of the product.

  • Rapid prototyping can enhance the early visibility.

  • It is easier to find the design flaws in the early developmental stages.

  • Active participation among the users and producer is encouraged by rapid prototyping.

  • As the development costs are reduced, Rapid prototyping proves to be cost effective.

  • The user can get a higher output.

  • The deficiencies in the earlier prototypes can be detected and rectified in time.

  • The speed of system development is increased. It is possible to get immediate feedback from the user.

  • There is better communication between the user and designer as the requirements and expectations are expressed in the beginning itself.

  • High quality product is easily delivered by way of Rapid prototyping.

  • Rapid prototyping enables development time and costs.

  • There are many innovative ways in which Rapid prototyping can be used.



  • not effective because, in actual, it fails in replication of the real product or system.

  • It could so happen that some important developmental steps could be omitted to get a quick and cheap working model.

  • one in which many problems are overlooked resulting in endless rectifications and revisions.

  • it may not be suitable for large sized applications.

  • The user may have very high expectations about the prototype’s performance and the designer is unable to deliver these.

  • The system could be left unfinished due to various reasons or the system may be implemented before it is completely ready.

  • The producer may produce an inadequate system that is unable to meet the overall demands of the organization.

  • Too much involvement of the user might hamper the optimization of the program.

  • The producer may be too attached to the program of rapid prototyping, thus it may lead to legal involvement.

  • The cost reduction benefit of rapid prototyping also seems to be debatable, as sufficient details regarding the calculation basis and assumptions are not substantial.



Difference between other ID model:


Dick & Carey Model






References :

Tripp, S. C. & Bichelmeyer, B. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. ETR &D, 38(1), p. 31-44.





Tony Bates is President and CEO of Tony Bates Associates Ltd, a private company specializing in consultancy and training in the planning and management of e-learning and distance education. He is the author of twelve books, including his latest, a free, open online textbook for faculty and instructors, called Teaching in a Digital Age, which has been downloaded over 32,000 times between its publication in April, 2015 and July 2016.

“teaching in higher education in 2015 and beyond, requires new approach because of the changes in the economy and changes in technology” (Tony Bates, 2015)

There are several demand in 21st century skills on teaching and learning which is:

  • communication skills
  • independent learning
  • ethics / responsibility
  • teamwork / felxibility
  • thinking skills (problem-solving, critical thinking, creativity)
  • IT skills
  • knowledge management

In learning, knowledge as a developmental (constructivist), while teaching is creating the right environment. Technology is focusing on learning environment. Technology provide different contexts of learning environment for examples learning management system, virtual world (second life) and personal learning environment.

At the same time, every teacher, instructor, and increasingly learner, needs to make decisions in this area, often on a daily basis. A model for technology selection and application is needed therefore that has the following characteristics:

  • it will work in a wide variety of learning contexts;
  • it allows decisions to be taken at both a strategic, institution-wide level, and at a tactical, instructional, level;
  • it gives equal attention to educational and operational issues;
  • it will identify critical differences between different media and technologies, thus enabling an appropriate mix to be chosen for any given context;
  • it is easily understood, pragmatic and cost-effective;
  • it will accommodate new developments in technology.


SECTIONS models :

  • S tudents
  • E ase of use
  • C ost
  • T eaching functions, including pedagogical affordances of media
  • I nteraction
  • O rganizational issues
  • N etworking
  • S ecurity and privacy






Pasquini, L. (2015, April 3). Checklist: Selecting Technology for Learning. Retrieved April 8, 2017, from technowtools.wordpress:




Visual culture is the aspect of culture expressed in visual image. In the academic fields there are certain subject which is similar including cultural studies, art history, critical theory, philosophy and anthropology. (wikipedia)

According to (Julier, 2006) the periodization of visual culture is understood in two ways. One is that the visual has come to be the dominant cognitive and representational form of modernity. This certainly is the position that was taken by W. J. T. Mitchell and Mirzoeff. In this account, the emergence of a “visual turn” in Western society is the effect of the creation of mass consumer markets and urbanization during the industrial revolution. Indeed, the proliferation of images became a key characteristic of modern social organization.

While in (Barker, 2010) stated that visual culture is a complex area of study that overlaps with and draws upon several disciplines in order to make sense of its subject matter. As a field of study, visual culture is self-reflexive and always cognizant of the evolving sensory landscape against which it must also evolve. Just as visual culture is inconstant and always under development, so are the students and instructors who critically engage their many sensory environments.

Hence, visual culture is about combination of two thing which is image and artifact to visualized certain culture or revolusion. In the presence of visual culture, it can helps the art in education such as  fine art, photography, film, TV, and advertising within their scope. Visual culture is importance to educate other about the culture using the image to delivered the message. Beside visual culture, the term “design culture” has been used more sporadically, and not just in academia. It also has been employed in journalism and the design industry itself.

In Tyler curriculum model, released in 1949, uses children’s interests as the focus of attention in the educational design process. The idea that children learn more effectively when they are allowed to pursue at least some of their interests is central to Tyler’s philosophy. Originally, In a book Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction he tell about the principle to making curriculum. The Tyler’s model was the one of the first and simple models that consist 4 step:

  1. Determine the school’s purposes (objectives)
  2. Identify educational experiences related to purpose
  3. Organize the experiences
  4. Evaluate the purpose





From my opinion, the visual culture can be a part of curriculum that can be good to implement in the education nowadays. The student especially have to know and understand their culture using this type of approach. The curriculum according to Tyler model should be implement in a right way. Thus, the student can used the subject (visual culture) as a part of their curriculum to enchance their knowledge and skills in education.

Besides that, there are 9 event of instructional design model based on Gagne’s conditions on learning model. These model was proposed  by Robert Gagne  with a series of events which follow a systematic instructional design process that share the behaviorist approach to learning. Through my understanding, Gagne’s 9 events of instructional help to build the framework which is to prepared and deliver content. Before implementing the 9 events, course goals and learning objectives should be prepared first. The 9 events of instruction can be modified to fit the content and the student’s level of knowledge.

The first step in Gagne’s theory is specifying the kind of outcomes to be achieved. He categorised these outcomes into five types which is

  • verbal information
  • intellectual skills
  • cognitive strategies
  • attitudes
  • motor skills.

The second step is to organise appropriate instructional events. Gagne’s “Events of Instruction” consist of the following:

  • Gain Attention– this step serves to obtain the attention of the learner, in order to
    help ensure they watch or listen to the content being delivered
  • Inform Learners of Objectives– This enables the learners to anticipate what they
    should organize their thoughts and attention on, in order to prepare for the content
    to be delivered
  • Stimulate Recall of Prior Learning– This allows the learners to recall what they
    have previously learned and attempt to prime it (so to speak) for what they are
    about to learn and connect the two
  • Present the Content-The instructor delivers the content, utilizing a number of
    different media (lecture, printed material, audio, video, etc.)
  • Provide “Learning Guidance”- This allows the facilitator to enable student
    learning by such modalities as activities and discussion and provides a framework
    (rubric) that can help guide the structure of these modalities.
  • Elicit Performance (practice)- This enables the students to practice what they
    have learned in order to help improve retention and knowledge transfer.
  • Provide Feedback– This allows learners to receive feedback on their performance
    (practice, projects, groups, etc.). This helps learners identify and correct problems
    of learning.
  • Assess Performance- This enables the instructor to show the learner the content
    areas where mastery is still pending. Quizzes, exams, Q&A, essays or interviews
    can be used with success in this event.
  • Enhance Retention and Transfer to the Job- Utilizing this method enables the
    student to apply information learned from the course to a personal context or
    experience. This enriches the learning process and helps to deepen the retention
    and learning.


Through my reading, there are some similarities of Gagne model and Dick & Carey model. Both of the model utilize a logical approach to design of educational course which is very systematic. Besides that, there are similarities in their components which is separate and discrete components. The components are not mean to isolated each other, but both models have the same outcomes process. A third similarity can be said to be the focus of the learner inherent in each model. Gagne’s whole system is designed to be set around the learner and the tangible and intangible aspects of education as they relate to the learner. Dick and Carey’s model, while systems-based in its approach, utilize the ideas of “design” and “conduct” in almost every step or component. These imply that the basis of said design or conducting (of evaluation) is based on the needs/responses of the learner.


Gagne’s theories provide a great deal of valuable information to teachers. Applying Gagne’s nine-step model is an excellent way to ensure an effective and systematic learning program as it gives structure to the lesson plans and a holistic view to the teaching. We need to keep in mind that the exact form of these events is not something that can be specified in general for all lessons, but rather must be decided for each learning objective.

The performance most frequently required of students is to remember, while our intent is most often to help them understand, and by putting more structure into the objectives of the lesson plans we will be able to achieve this aim. As Gagne himself says, “organisation is the hallmark of effective instructional materials”.


Mirzoeff, N. (2006). Journal of visual culture On Visuality. Journal of visual culture, 54-76.

Curriculum Development: The Tyler Model

Forest, E. (2015, November 23). Dick and Carey Instructional Model. Retrieved April 8, 2017, from Educational Technology:





This research seek to identify the criteria of student readiness towards MOOC’s learning and to investigate  the facilitator perspective towards the readiness of having MOOC’s in teaching. The instrument used in this research was questionnaires. The questionnaires was distributed to 322 social sciences student  in University of Technology MARA (UiTM Shah Alam) which is Faculty Art & Design, Faculty of Education and Faculty Film, Theater and Animation (FITA). The theory of motivation, self-learners and technology acceptance was apply in this research.



  • To identify the criteria of student readiness towards MOOC’s learning.
  • To investigate  the facilitator perspective towards the readiness of having MOOC’s in teaching.



  • What are the criteria of student readiness towards MOOC’s learning?
  • What are the facilitator perspective towards the readiness of having MOOC’s in teaching?






  • Describe as a abstract, logical, structure of meaning that guide to the development of study.
  • Based on identification of key concept and the relationship among those concept.


  • Name an object or phenomenon, with separate identity or meaning.
  • An intellectual representation of some aspect of reality that derived from observation and made from phenomenon.


  • More concrete level and are narrow in their definition.
  • Specific and measurable.
  • Framework can be derived from related concept (conceptual) or existing theories (theoretical).
  • Sometimes used interchangeably, but have different meanings.



  • Consists of concept that are placed within a logical and sequential design.
  • Less formal structure and used for studies which existing theory is inapplicable or insufficient.
  • Specific concept and propositions, from observation and intuition.


  • to explain observations.
  • to provide a context for interpreting the study findings.
  • to clarify concepts and propose relationships among the concepts in a study.
  • to encourage theory development that is useful to practice.



  • A point of focus for attacking the unknown in a specific area.
  • Purposely created and formulated, never discovered, they can be tested but never proven.
  • If a relationship is found between two or more variables a theory should be formulated to explain why the relationship exists.
  • Consists of theories that seem to be interrelated.
  • Formal and used for studies based on existing theories.


  • to test theories.
  • to make research findings meaningful and generalizable.
  • to establish orderly connections between observations and facts.
  • to predict and control situations.
  • to stimulate research.


“theories and conceptual models help to stimulate research and the extension of knowledge by providing both direction and impetus”.

CONCEPTUAL and THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK my be represented as models which is :

  • Schematic model conveys concepts and propositions through the used of boxes, arrow, or other symbols.
  • Mathematical or statistical model conveys concepts and propositions through the used of letters, number and mathematical symbols.





Imenda, S. (2014). Is There a Conceptual Difference between Theoretical and Conceptual Framework? Theoretical versus conceptual framework, 185-195.

Olivia. (2011, May 24). Different Between Conceptual and Theoretical Framework. Retrieved March 25, 2017, from Different

Regoneil, P. (2010, August 29). What is the Difference Between the Theoretical and the Conceptual Framework? Retrieved March 25, 2017, from Knoji consumer knowledge: