Visual culture is the aspect of culture expressed in visual image. In the academic fields there are certain subject which is similar including cultural studies, art history, critical theory, philosophy and anthropology. (wikipedia)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_culture
According to (Julier, 2006) the periodization of visual culture is understood in two ways. One is that the visual has come to be the dominant cognitive and representational form of modernity. This certainly is the position that was taken by W. J. T. Mitchell and Mirzoeff. In this account, the emergence of a “visual turn” in Western society is the effect of the creation of mass consumer markets and urbanization during the industrial revolution. Indeed, the proliferation of images became a key characteristic of modern social organization.
While in (Barker, 2010) stated that visual culture is a complex area of study that overlaps with and draws upon several disciplines in order to make sense of its subject matter. As a field of study, visual culture is self-reflexive and always cognizant of the evolving sensory landscape against which it must also evolve. Just as visual culture is inconstant and always under development, so are the students and instructors who critically engage their many sensory environments.
Hence, visual culture is about combination of two thing which is image and artifact to visualized certain culture or revolusion. In the presence of visual culture, it can helps the art in education such as fine art, photography, film, TV, and advertising within their scope. Visual culture is importance to educate other about the culture using the image to delivered the message. Beside visual culture, the term “design culture” has been used more sporadically, and not just in academia. It also has been employed in journalism and the design industry itself.
In Tyler curriculum model, released in 1949, uses children’s interests as the focus of attention in the educational design process. The idea that children learn more effectively when they are allowed to pursue at least some of their interests is central to Tyler’s philosophy. Originally, In a book Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction he tell about the principle to making curriculum. The Tyler’s model was the one of the first and simple models that consist 4 step:
- Determine the school’s purposes (objectives)
- Identify educational experiences related to purpose
- Organize the experiences
- Evaluate the purpose
From my opinion, the visual culture can be a part of curriculum that can be good to implement in the education nowadays. The student especially have to know and understand their culture using this type of approach. The curriculum according to Tyler model should be implement in a right way. Thus, the student can used the subject (visual culture) as a part of their curriculum to enchance their knowledge and skills in education.
Besides that, there are 9 event of instructional design model based on Gagne’s conditions on learning model. These model was proposed by Robert Gagne with a series of events which follow a systematic instructional design process that share the behaviorist approach to learning. Through my understanding, Gagne’s 9 events of instructional help to build the framework which is to prepared and deliver content. Before implementing the 9 events, course goals and learning objectives should be prepared first. The 9 events of instruction can be modified to fit the content and the student’s level of knowledge.
The first step in Gagne’s theory is specifying the kind of outcomes to be achieved. He categorised these outcomes into five types which is
- verbal information
- intellectual skills
- cognitive strategies
- motor skills.
The second step is to organise appropriate instructional events. Gagne’s “Events of Instruction” consist of the following:
- Gain Attention– this step serves to obtain the attention of the learner, in order to
help ensure they watch or listen to the content being delivered
- Inform Learners of Objectives– This enables the learners to anticipate what they
should organize their thoughts and attention on, in order to prepare for the content
to be delivered
- Stimulate Recall of Prior Learning– This allows the learners to recall what they
have previously learned and attempt to prime it (so to speak) for what they are
about to learn and connect the two
- Present the Content-The instructor delivers the content, utilizing a number of
different media (lecture, printed material, audio, video, etc.)
- Provide “Learning Guidance”- This allows the facilitator to enable student
learning by such modalities as activities and discussion and provides a framework
(rubric) that can help guide the structure of these modalities.
- Elicit Performance (practice)- This enables the students to practice what they
have learned in order to help improve retention and knowledge transfer.
- Provide Feedback– This allows learners to receive feedback on their performance
(practice, projects, groups, etc.). This helps learners identify and correct problems
- Assess Performance- This enables the instructor to show the learner the content
areas where mastery is still pending. Quizzes, exams, Q&A, essays or interviews
can be used with success in this event.
- Enhance Retention and Transfer to the Job- Utilizing this method enables the
student to apply information learned from the course to a personal context or
experience. This enriches the learning process and helps to deepen the retention
Through my reading, there are some similarities of Gagne model and Dick & Carey model. Both of the model utilize a logical approach to design of educational course which is very systematic. Besides that, there are similarities in their components which is separate and discrete components. The components are not mean to isolated each other, but both models have the same outcomes process. A third similarity can be said to be the focus of the learner inherent in each model. Gagne’s whole system is designed to be set around the learner and the tangible and intangible aspects of education as they relate to the learner. Dick and Carey’s model, while systems-based in its approach, utilize the ideas of “design” and “conduct” in almost every step or component. These imply that the basis of said design or conducting (of evaluation) is based on the needs/responses of the learner.
Gagne’s theories provide a great deal of valuable information to teachers. Applying Gagne’s nine-step model is an excellent way to ensure an effective and systematic learning program as it gives structure to the lesson plans and a holistic view to the teaching. We need to keep in mind that the exact form of these events is not something that can be specified in general for all lessons, but rather must be decided for each learning objective.
The performance most frequently required of students is to remember, while our intent is most often to help them understand, and by putting more structure into the objectives of the lesson plans we will be able to achieve this aim. As Gagne himself says, “organisation is the hallmark of effective instructional materials”.
Mirzoeff, N. (2006). Journal of visual culture On Visuality. Journal of visual culture, 54-76.
Forest, E. (2015, November 23). Dick and Carey Instructional Model. Retrieved April 8, 2017, from Educational Technology: http://educationaltechnology.net/dick-and-carey-instructional-model/